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Referencing - The Rules

Referencing – The Rules

There are three rules of referencing. If you follow them, you can be sure that your work will be referenced correctly: 1.You must include a reference every time you use someone else’s ideas or information, when that information is not widely known. 2.You must include a reference when you: a.Paraphrase (put someone else’s idea in your own words) b.Summarise (put someone else’s idea in your own words and in a reduced form) c.Quote (express someone else’s idea in their exact words) d.Copy (reproduce an image, chart, graph or table from someone else’s work) 3.A reference must appear in two places: a.In the body of your work (the in-text citation) b.In the reference list at the end of you work (this is where the full details are listed so the reader can find the document for themselves)

Some Examples

There are many different referencing styles. Within Internet Studies, you will be using a form of referencing called APA (American Psychology Association). Each type of source text (i.e Journal article, newspaper, book, TV Show, web page etc.) has its own requirements for referencing. The specifics of how different sources are referenced using the APA style can be found here.

Included below are a number of examples that should give you a good idea of how referencing is used.

Referencing Information Referencing information is relatively straightforward. You have come across information that you wish to use in your work. When you use the information, you include an in-text citation and a full reference at the end of your piece:

On May 1st, 2009 Vodafone began rolling out a 3G network in Australia (Hewitt, 2009).



Hewitt, R. (2009). Vodafone extends its regional 3G network. Retrieved May 5th, 2009, from >,28348,25412873-5014239,00.html

(Note: You’ll see here that the URL of this Web page only appears in the reference list. A URL should never be part of the in-text citation.)

Referencing Ideas Referencing someone else’s idea is a bit more complex as there are a variety of ways in which we can use ideas in writing. The most common, with examples, are shown below:

Example 1: Paraphrase

Michael Froomkin (2000) has suggested that employers are continually looking for new ways to measure employee efficiency.

Example 2: Paraphrase

Employers are always on the lookout for new methods of quantifying employee efficiency (Froomkin, 2000).

Example 3: Summarise

Michael Froomkin (2000) has reviewed the way in which issues of privacy and surveillance are being affected by technological developments, suggesting that a legal response must come sooner rather than later.

Example 4: Summarise

As our understandings of privacy and surveillance have been radically altered by technological developments, it is likely that a legal response will come sooner rather than later (Froomkin, 2000).

Example 5: Quote

Michael Froomkin (2000, p.1463) has suggested that “employers continually seek new ways to monitor employees for efficiency and honesty”.

Example 6: Quote

In the age of Internet technology, “employers continually seek new ways to monitor employees for efficiency and honesty” (Froomkin, 2000, p.1463).

As you can see, in all of these examples, the writing and/or ideas of Michael Froomkin are referenced to allow the reader to refer to his original article if necessary. In addition to the in-text citations seen here, the reference list for the piece of work would include the full reference:


Froomkin, M. (2000). The Death of Privacy? Stanford Law Review, 52, 1461-1543.