First things first, you’ll need to make sure your data are in a folder within your Google Drive rather than the root directory. Once you’ve added your data file to that folder, make sure that folder and the file are shareable.
These steps assume you’re working through Google Drive in your browser:
https://drive.google.com/drive/u/0/folders/<folder ID>. The folder ID should be a string of numbers and letter rather than the name you gave the folder.
For example, if you have
data.geojson in a folder with an of ID
a1B2c3defg456, the your URL to access that data would be